The rise of emerging markets in the coming decades will have huge implications for companies. Any multinational company that aims to be a global leader must know how to capture a significant share of the largest customer segment in countries such as China, India, Russia and Brazil. These new customers are the so-called middle segment. This article demonstrates that a successful approach to this critical segment requires an entirely new attitude from Western multinationals towards emerging markets. Without it, they will not only fail to grow in emerging markets but also risk losing their position in their mature home markets.