How Japanese Multinationals Work So Well
Issue 4, 1991

The Japanese multinational gains its efficiency and effectiveness through a management system superbly well equipped to handle complex coordination. Where the manufacturing processes are complex, where customers are fickle, and where technical innovations are continuously changing, Japanese multinationals are steadily increasing their global market share. This is why Japanese multinationals are particularly successful in electronics, machinery, and automobiles, but less successful in chemicals, building materials, beverages, and food products. Japanese multinationals score over their Western counterparts wherever the business requires a system adapted to complex coordination in a continuously changing environment.