Today, 64% of all travel happens within urban environments, and the total amount of urban kilometers traveled is expected to triple by 2050. A similar trend is anticipated in terms of urban goods distribution, with e-commerce being the fastest-growing driver of urban deliveries, which also impacts the length and fragmentation of urban logistics flows. As a growing number of vehicles in urban areas implies increased congestion, air pollution and noise, which negatively impact traffic safety, quality of life and urban economic competitiveness, more and more cities are experiencing issues related to last mile delivery of goods.
Last mile delivery of goods is a difficult issue to apprehend, as it involves several levels of complexity. In addition to the heterogeneity of the goods transported and of the means of transportation, urban logistics encompass diverse levers and multiple stakeholders.