The telecoms industry in Europe and the US is at risk of becoming a low profit business. If the current trend cannot be reversed, industry margins are at risk of dropping from the current figure of 35 - 40 per cent to 15 per cent within 5 years. Cost management has to become an inherent core competence for wireless and wireline operators. Significant cost reductions are only possible with substantial changes in the business/operating model. New pressures will mean a change in mind-set and the ability to ‘think outside the box’. Arthur D. Little has successfully managed this process with many operators.