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Industrial Renewal Through Regional Development

The dissolution of the centrally controlled political and economic system in Eastern Europe has led naturally to the regionalization of this part of the continent. National and - increasingly - regional (i.e., subnational) governments are assuming responsibility for fundamental political and...

The Japanese View of Eastern Europe

During 1990 and 1991, mission after mission of Japanese business executives went to Eastern Europe to explore potential business opportunities. Prime Minister Kaifu and other Japanese political leaders also paid visits. By and large, Japanese businessmen concluded that in the next few years Eastern...

Japanese Businesses at a Crossroads

In the 1990s, Japanese businesses are being challenged to revise their fundamental approaches to doing business, both domestically and internationally. The practices that are being called into question include both export policies and exclusionary business practices, as well as deeper cultural...

Soft Measurement: A Vital Ingredient in Quality Improvement

During the early days of the quality revolution, when quality improvement efforts were focused primarily on manufacturing, managers measured hard facts - errors, rejects, and production time - as a way to document tangible improvements in the production process.

Safeguarding the Environment: Critical Issues for Today and...

Underlying all environmental issues is the tension between stewardship of the environment and the goals of business, namely growth and profitability. Today, the message of the scientists is being heard.

Measuring the Payoff From Improved Customer Service

In recent years, we have often been approached by senior executives with questions along the following lines: "I hear all this hype about providing better customer service as part of my Total Quality Management program, and it sounds intriguing, but the thing is, how do I justify investing in it? I...

European Environmental Trends in the 1990s

Companies worldwide would do well to take note of environmental trends now developing in Europe. For a number of reasons, including high population densities, scarce natural resources, and early environmental degradation caused by the industrial revolution, Europeans are highly sensitized to...

Viewpoint Evolving the Strategy at Ford

Of the more than 40 years I have spent with Ford Motor Company all over the world, the last 10 have been the most exciting. The decade of the 1980s brought a massive cultural change at Ford. Our quality strategy steadily evolved from an early emphasis on reducing "things gone wrong" to the...

Packaging: Meeting the Environmental Challenge

Packaging is the ultimate symbol of the 20th century's consumer culture. It protects what we buy and raises our standard of living. In developing countries, 30 to 50 percent of food shipments are spoiled because of inadequate packaging and distribution systems. In developed countries with more...

Third-Generation R&D Management

In the decades ahead, competition will grow increasingly international and will focus increasingly on technological strengths. Financial and physical resources, work skills, and technology are highly mobile. The firms that succeed in global competition will be those that employ technology to...