Until now, it has been possible to modernize and upgrade the fundamental copper-based network, which was inherited in most cases prior to liberalization of the industry. Now the time has come for the industry to move decisively to fibre. The challenge is how to attain the clear national economic benefits of the latest fibre infrastructure while managing the considerable investment required. The best approach to meet this challenge remains unclear in many countries. This paper identifies five National Fibre strategic models that have been implemented by countries around the globe, and assesses which of these models are most likely to fulfill National Fibre goals to the benefit of all stakeholders, including governments, regulators and policy makers. These models lever a number of key success factors, which can be adopted by industry, government and regulators, and which require more sophisticated public and private coordination and graded policy frameworks.